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PLCopen OPC-UA
Client v 1.1
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Creating PLCopen
Compliant Libraries
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PLCopen
Safe Motion v0.99
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PLCopen
presentations
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Part 1 - Basics and Part 2 - Extensions

 

 

Introduction

Part 1, the Basic document (version 1.0) was originally published in November 2001, a specification of an independent library of function blocks for motion control. It included motion functionality for single axes and multiple axes, several administrative tasks, as well as a state diagram. This specification provides the user a standard command set and structure independent of the underlying architecture. This structure can be used on many platforms and architectures. In this way one can decide which architecture will be used at a later stage of the development cycle. Advantages for the machine builder are, amongst others, lower costs for supporting the different platforms and the freedom to develop application software in a more independent way, without limiting the productivity of the machine. In addition to those benefits, system maintenance is easier and the education period is shorter. This is a major step forward, and is more and more accepted by both users as well as suppliers. With so many implementations, as well as the first applications, inconsistencies were found in the first specification, as well as additional features to be added. This resulted in an update of the basic document; version 1.1, which was released in April 2005 and implemented in over 30 products.

Part 2, Extensions is an addition to the basic document and should not be seen as a stand alone document. For example, part 2 adds information to the state diagram, but only the added transitions are shown in this document, containing additional function blocks. 

In 2007 we started a new phase in PLCopen Motion Control – the update of the basic specification, known as Part 1 – Basics, and Part 2 - Extensions. With multiple implementations and many applications running, more and more feedback came in at PLCopen for items to be clarified or changed, as well as additions. All these comments were merged in 2 new documents: a “Corrigendum” for the clarifications and changes, and an “Addendum” for the additions. (Note: these documents at the current stage are only open for PLCopen members). This resulted in the decision to merge Part 1 and Part 2 into one document in order to provide a better overview of these basics. This document is now released Version 2.0


Definition of the state machine

The following diagram normatively defines the behavior of the axis at a high level. This diagram is useful to build a more complicated profile or to treat exceptions within a program. (In real implementations there may be additional states at a lower level defined).
The axis is always in one of the defined state (see diagram). Any motion command is a transition that changes the state of the axis and, as a consequence, modifies the way the current motion is computed.

There are eight states defined as shown in the picture below:

 

A normal procedure would start in Disabled. In this state the power can be switched on per axis (via the command Power, see above) which transfers the relevant axis to the state Standstill. From there one can access the Homing state (via the issue of the command Home per axis), which after normal completion returns to Stand Still. From here one can transfer an axis to either Discrete Motion or Continuous Motion. From these states a coupling to a master axis can be realized for instance via issuing MC_GearIn. The resulting state for the slave axis is then Synchronized Motion. Issuing a single axis move command will bring the axis back to either Discrete or Continuous Motion. Via the state Stopping one can return to StandStill. ErrorStop is a state the axis transfers to in case of an error. Via a (manual) Reset command one can return to StandStill, from which the machine can be moved to an operational state again. Please note that the States define the functionality of the Function Blocks.


Function Blocks Definitions

A. Axis Ref

The reference to an axis is done via the derived datatype AXIS_REF. This datatype is supplied by all manufacturers. It provides the interface towards the motor / drive itself. The technicalities of the real interface are hidden within the structure and function block itself. In this way, different architectures, from centralized to distributed and networked systems, looks the same to the user while giving access to all relevant parameters.

B. AxisRef as Var_In_Out

The Axis_Ref is used as Var_In_Out, represented as an input and an output connected by a horizontal line in a graphical representation of a Function Block. The variables used within Axis_Ref, acting both as input and output parameters, can be modified within the Function Block as well as receive values from external variables. However they are stored externally to the FB, making copying of the structure unnecessary.
As an example of how this could operate: imagine a Program containing several function blocks, all linked after each other (left-to-right) and all referring to the same axis via Axis_Ref. The first FB reads the latest values in Axes_Ref, and might update some of these values before it finishes its execution. Then the next FB is started and reads the updated values within Axes_Ref, so uses the latest values. And these values are internally coupled to the motor itself. Again, the control architecture can be quite different across systems.
One can use this reference to define one or more virtual axes, in that sense that it exists as a datastructure but is not coupled to a physical drive and/or motor.


The Function Blocks for single axis Motion Control

There are motion related and administrative function blocks defined in both part 1 and 2. The first movement function block is shown here in some more detail:

FB-Name

MC_MoveAbsolute

This function block commands a controlled motion at a specified absolute position.


Graphical representation:
 

 

 

MC_MoveAbsolute

 

 

AXIS_REF

 

Axis

 

Axis

 

AXIS_REF

BOOL

 

Execute

 

Done

 

BOOL

REAL

 

Position

Busy

 

BOOL

REAL

 

Velocity

Active

 

BOOL

REAL

 

Acceleration

CommandAborted

 

BOOL

REAL

 

Deceleration

Error

 

BOOL

REAL

 

Jerk

ErrorID

 

WORD

MC_Direction

 

Direction

 

 

 

MC_BufferMode

 

BufferMode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The other single axis Function Blocks as defined in part 1 and 2 are listed here below in short-form:

  • MC_MoveRelative - moves the axis a specified distance relative to the actual position at the time of the execution. 
  • MC_MoveAdditive - for a specified relative distance additional to the original commanded position in the discrete motion state. In the Continuous Motion the specified relative distance is added to the actual position at the time of the execution.
  • MC_MoveSuperimposed - for a specified relative distance additional to an existing motion. The existing Motion is not interrupted, but is superimposed by the additional motion. 
  • MC_MoveVelocity - for a never ending controlled motion at a specified velocity.
  • MC_MoveContinuous - commands a controlled motion of a specified relative distance ending with the specified velocity.  
  • MC_TorqueControl - continuously exerts a torque or force of the specified magnitude, approached using a defined ramp, and sets the InTorque output if the torque level is reached.
  • MC_SetPosition - shifts the coordinate system of an axis by manipulating both the set-point position as well as the actual position of an axis with the same value without any movement caused.
  • MC_SetOverride - sets the values of override for the whole axis and all functions that are working on that axis.  
  • MC_TouchProbe - is used to record an axis position at a trigger event.
  • MC_AbortTrigger - is used to abort function blocks which are connected to trigger events (e.g. MC_TouchProbe).
  • MC_DigitalCamSwitch - provides the analogy to switches on a motor shaft: it commands a group of discrete output bits to switch in analogy to a set of mechanical cam controlled switches connected to an axis. Forward and backward movements are allowed.  
  • MC_Home - commands the axis to perform the «search home» sequence. The details of this sequence are manufacturer dependent and can be set by axis’ parameters, as well as the function blocks as defined in Part 5 – Homing sequences.  
  • MC_Stop - commands a controlled motion stop and transfers the axis to the state “Stopping”. It aborts any ongoing function block execution. With the Done output set, the state is transferred to the StandStill. While the axis is in state Stopping, no other FB can perform any motion on the same axis.  
  • MC_Halt - commands a controlled motion stop. It aborts any ongoing function block execution. The axis is moved to the state “DiscreteMotion“, until the velocity is zero. With the Done output set, the state is transferred to StandStill.  
  • MC_Power - switches the power stage on or off.
  • MC_ReadStatus - returns in detail the status of the axis with respect to the motion currently in progress.  
  • MC_ReadAxisError - Indicates errors not relating to the function blocks.
  • MC_Reset -makes the transition from the state ErrorStop to StandStill by resetting all internal axis-related errors and clearing pending commands.
  • MC_ReadParameter & MC_ReadBoolParameter - Returns the value of a vendor specific parameter.  
  • MC_WriteParameter & MC_WriteBoolParameter - Modifies the value of a vendor specific parameter.
  • MC_ReadActualPosition - returns the actual position.
  • MC_ReadDigitalInput - provides the value of the digital input as referenced by INPUT_REF.  
  • MC_ReadDigitalOutput - - provides the value of the digital output as referenced by OUTPUT_REF.  
  • MC_WriteDigitalOutput - writes a value to the output referenced by the argument “Output”once.
  • MC_ReadActualVelocity - returns the value of the actual velocity as long as enabled.
  • MC_ReadActualTorque - returns the value of the actual torque as long as enabled.  
  • MC_PositionProfile - commands a time-position locked motion profile.
  • MC_VelocityProfile - commands a time-velocity locked motion profile.
  • MC_AccelerationProfile - commands a time-acceleration locked motion profile.
     


Common set of multi-axes Function Blocks

For multi-axes, coordinated movements, a small set is defined. This set will be extended by additional application specific libraries. The current defined Function Blocks are:
  • CamTableSelect - selects the CAM tables by setting the pointers to the relevant tables.

  • CamIn - engages the CAM.

  • CamOut - disengages the Slave from the Master axis immediately.

  • GearIn - commands a ratio between the velocity of the slave and master axis.

  • GearOut - disengages the Slave from the Master axis.

  • MC_GearInPos - commands a gear ratio between the position of the slave and master axes from the synchronization point onwards.

A. Aborting, merging, and blending

Multiple function blocks have an input to set the different operating modes, combined with an output for signalling this. With this input, the FB can either work in a ‘Non-buffered mode’ (default behavior) or in a ‘Buffered mode’. The difference between those modes is when they should start their action:

  • A command in a non-buffered mode acts immediately, even if this interrupts another motion

  • A command in a buffered mode waits till the current FB is done (signaled via the corresponding output or via in-position, or in-velocity or similar outputs).

The following modes have been identified:

  • Aborting - Default mode without buffering. The next FB aborts an ongoing motion and the command is affecting the axis immediately;
  • Buffered - The next FB is affecting the axis as soon as the previous movement is ‘Done’. There is no blending;
  • BlendingLow - The next FB is controlling the axis after the previous FB has finished (equal to buffered), but the axis may not stop between the movements. The velocity is blended with the lowest velocity of both commands (1 and 2) at the first end-position (1);
  • BlendingPrevious - blending with the velocity of FB 1 at end-position of FB 1;

  • BlendingNext - blending with velocity of FB 2 at end-position of FB1;

  • BlendingHigh - blending with highest velocity of FB 1 and FB 2 at end-position of FB1.


An example

The following example is an example of a simple drilling unit:


We use Sequential Function Chart here to describe the different step for this drilling example.  

Step 1: Initialization, for instance at power up.
Step 2:
Move forward to drilling position and start driller turning: in this way it will be fully operational         before the position is reached; then check if both actions are completed.
Step 3:
Drill the hole.
Step 4:
After Drilling the hole we have to wait for the step-chain sequence to finish dwelling the hole free of any stuff which might have stuck in the hole.
Step 5:
Move driller back to starting position and shut the spindle off. Combining the finishing of moving backwards and stopping the spindle we signal the step-chain to start over.


Representation of the drilling example in SFC  

The corresponding timing diagram for the movement is depending on the selected mode. For example:

 
 

Timing diagram for drilling - aborting mode

 


Timing diagram for drilling - blending mode


Before you download the motion control library we would like you to fill out a little form with a few questions.